2022 Volume 1 Issue 4 Pages 292-298
Introduction: Embolus due to plaque rupture is a risk of cerebral infarction for carotid artery stenting (CAS). Female have been controversial as a risk factor for cardiovascular interventions in recent years. MMP-9 has been previously reported to be associated with acute ischemic stroke and to be a potential marker for arteriosclerosis.
Therefore, this paper aimed to investigate the gender difference of embolic complications for CAS using MMP-9.
Material and Methods: We analyzed 46 consecutive cases of CAS performed with distal balloon protection, including 34 males and 12 females. Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9 were measured before and after CAS. Embolic events were examined in Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) on MRI the next day after CAS.
Results: 13 cases (28.3%) had DWI-positive findings after CAS, and these results showed a significant gender difference (female 58.3% vs. male 17.6%, p < 0.05). Pre-CAS MMP-9 was significantly higher in females than in males (661.7 vs. 428.1 ng/ml, p < 0.05).
Pre-CAS MMP-9 tended to be higher in DWI-positive cases than DWI-negative cases with no significant difference (676.9 vs. 415.0 ng/ml, p = 0.051).
Conclusion: High serum MMP-9 in female have correlation with DWI positive findings after CAS. We suggest that high serum MMP-9 have a risk of cerebral infarction for CAS. Considering the results, CAS should be carefully performed, especially in female.