2012 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 9-54
Drug lag, recently discussed extensively in Japan, can be divided into two phases: clinical development time and application review time. The former factor is still an important problem that might be improved by promoting multi-regional clinical trials and considering the results from other similar populations with Japanese, such as Koreans and Chinese. In this review, we compare the allelic or genotype frequencies of 30 relatively common functional alleles mainly between Eastern Asians and Europeans as well as among 3 major populations in Eastern Asian countries, Japan, Korea, and China, in 12 pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD)-related genes; CYP2C9 (*2 and *3), CYP2C19 (*2, *3 and *17), 13 CYP2D6 haplotypes including *4, *5 and *10, CYP3A5 (*3), UGT1A1 (*28 and *6), NAT2 (*5, *6 and *7), GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes, SLCO1B1 521T>C, ABCG2 421C>A, and HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*58:01. In this review, differences in allele frequencies (AFs) or genotype frequencies (GFs) less than 0.1 (in the cases of highest AF (GF) ≥0.1) or less than 0.05 (in the cases of lowest AF (GF) <0.1) were regarded as similar. Between Eastern Asians and Europeans, AFs (or GFs) are regarded as being different for many alleles such as CYP2C9 (*2), CYP2C19 (*2, *3 and *17), CYP2D6 (*4 and *10), CYP3A5 (*3), UGT1A1 (*28 and *6), NAT2 (*5*7), GSTT1 null and ABCG2 421C>A. Among the 3 Eastern Asian populations, however, only AFs of CYP2C19*3, CYP2D6*10, HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*58:01 are regarded as dissimilar. For CYP2C19*3, the total functional impact on CYP2C19 could be small if the frequencies of the two null alleles CYP2C19*2 and *3 are combined. Regarding CYP2D6*10, frequency difference over 0.1 is observed only between Japanese and Chinese (0.147). Although environmental factors should be considered for PK/PD differences, we could propose that among Japan, Korea, and China, genetic differences are very small for the analyzed common PK-related gene polymorphisms. On the other hand, AFs of the two HLA alleles important for cutaneous adverse drug reactions are diverse even among Eastern Asians and thus should be taken into account.
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