This paper explores the impact of being poor on time use decisions and the similarities and differences between urban and rural areas in Gujarat, India. For this purpose, we develop discrete－continuous time use models for (1) mobile/immobile choices and the time allocated to travel, (2) time use for subsistence activities and (3) time use for social and leisure activities. The empirical results show that (1) while a number of similar impacts of being poor are confirmed between urban and rural areas, significant differences are also observed, possibly because of the different labor needs in urban (tertiary sector) areas versus rural (primary sector) areas, infrastructure differences (such as roads and water supply), and so on. Our results provide evidence that although the meaning of “poor” from the income/expenditure perspective may not differ between urban and rural areas, it is unignorably different from the perspective of time use.
2016 Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies