Electrophoresis Letters
Online ISSN : 2189-2636
Print ISSN : 2189-2628
ISSN-L : 2189-2636
Innate immune signaling by cytosolic DNA
Kou Motani
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JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

2021 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 7-11

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Abstract

Cytosolic DNA derived from pathogen or host cells activates cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) to produce cyclic GMP-AMP dinucleotide (cGAMP). The binding of cGAMP to a downstream adaptor protein, stimulator of interferon genes (STING), induces innate immune response. Here, we reported two useful methods to analyze the cGAS-cGAMP-STING signaling pathway. One is a sensitive in vitro assay to detect cGAMP using clear-native PAGE, based on its ability to induce STING dimerization. Using this method, we successfully detected cGAMP in the fetal liver and spleen of DNase II deficient mice, which cause a strong inflammatory response that leads to lethal anemia or polyarthritis. Another is an improved proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) method, which is a powerful technology to identify protein-protein interactions in living cells. By using the improved BioID method, we identified previously known and unknown interactors of STING, such as several palmitoyl transferases, interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) and interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3). The STING interactome obtained in this method will provide new insights into the cGAS-cGAMP-STING signaling network.

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