1979 Volume 16 Issue 6 Pages 551-555
Antithrombin III (AT III) concentrations in healthy Japanese and with thromboembolic disorders were measured by use of single radial immunodiffusion. 300 healthy controls were examined: 25 males and 25 females in each decade from 10 to 70. The concentration of AT III in healthy males slowly decreases with age. The decrease after the age of forty is even greater. No significant decrease occurs in females. Therefore, in the determination of AT III levels in thromboembolic disorders, it is necessary that the results be compared with age-matched controls.
AT III was determined in patients with various thromboembolic disorders, DIC, myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction, and in patients with liver cirrhosis. 24 patients suffering from each disease were selected, matched by sex and age. The lowest levels of AT III were found with DIC, followed by myocardial infarction and cirrhosis of the liver. With cerebral infarction no significant changes were found. The results in all cases were the same when a biologic assay was used.
In diabetics, no difference in AT III was found between diabetics without vascular complication and healthy controls. In diabetics with retinopathy there was a significant decrease. The concentrations were even lower in those with retinopathy and proliferative changes. Moreover, in diabetics with vascular complications the degree of decrease in AT III was also related to the duration of the disease. The lowest AT III levels were found in those patients with vascular complications of over 10 years duration in whom platelet hperaggregability with ADP could also be demonstrated. It is suggested that decreased concentrations of AT III together with platelet hyperaggregability may take a role in pathogenesis of vascular changes in diabetics.