2014 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 105-113
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an aggressive therapeutic procedure that results in myelosuppression, immunosuppression, limitation of oral intake and intestinal absorption by gastrointestinal toxicity and complications, and increased catabolism. When HSCT recipients do not receive appropriate nutritional support, they develop malnutrition followed by complications, including infection and organ dysfunction. Based on an institutional nutrition program, assessment of the nutritional status and individual nutrition support are carried out for all patients undergoing HSCT before the procedure and afterward. Oral feeding with a low-microbial diet is used to prevent sepsis associated with bacterial translocation from the intestine, especially during neutropenia. Parenteral nutrition is widely used in transplant recipients to supply a deficiency of optimal nutrient intake or absorption. The use of enteral nutrition has been gradually increasing. Key nutrients, including antioxidants, glutamine, fatty acids, and glucose, should be properly utilized. Glucose control may have a beneficial effect after HSCT. Nutrition assessment and timely intervention are critical components for a successful transplant outcome.