Hydrological Research Letters
Online ISSN : 1882-3416
ISSN-L : 1882-3416
Influence of water-related appliances on projected domestic water use in Tokyo
Naoko NakagawaMasahiro OtakiToshiya AramakiAkira Kawamura
Author information
Supplementary material

2009 Volume 3 Pages 22-26


In this study, the amount of domestic water use was quantified by estimating the usage rates of various water-related appliances. Tokyo Metropolis was selected as a case study because it was relatively easy to obtain detailed data from Tokyo Waterworks Bureau. In the analysis, the calculations for domestic water use reproduced actual usage figures from 1998 to 2006. From the maximum domestic water use per capita in 1997 the projected reduction was estimated to be 9% by 2025 and 10% by 2050. In addition, our results indicate that water use for both bath and toilet is expected to remain high in the future. We performed a simulation assuming that a 6 L-type toilet is installed by all consumers, with the results suggesting that domestic water use per capita per day could reduce to around 200 L. It was therefore concluded that the replacement of a conventional toilet with a water-saving-type toilet is one of the most effective solutions for reducing domestic water use.

Content from these authors
© 2009 Japan Society of Hydrology and Water Resources
Previous article Next article