Volume 26 (2018) Pages 362-374
Many older adults are interested in smartphones. However, most of them encounter difficulties in self-instruction and need support. Text entry, which is essential for various applications, is one of the most difficult operations to master. In this paper, we propose Typing Tutor, an individualized tutoring system for text entry that detects input stumbles using a statistical approach and provides instructions. By conducting two user studies, we clarify the common difficulties that novice older adults experience and how skill level is related to input stumbles with a 12-key layout for Japanese. Based on the study, we develop Typing Tutor to support learning how to enter text on a smartphone. A two-week evaluation experiment with novice older adults (65+) showed that Typing Tutor was effective in improving their text entry proficiency, especially in the initial stage of use. In addition, we demonstrate the applicability of Typing Tutor to other keyboards and languages with the QWERTY layout for Japanese and English.