2022 Volume 11 Issue 2 Pages 46-51
99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT is a promising nuclear medicine imaging investigation for benign renal lesions such as renal oncocytomas. The purpose of this article is to i) review the current literature on 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT, ii) to review to current application of 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT for indeterminate renal lesion imaging, and iii) to discuss present limitations and areas for future research. The literature has been reviewed up to April 2022 for articles relating to the application of 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT for benign renal lesions including a recently published systematic review and meta-analysis performed by the authors. One study evaluating 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT alone and five studies evaluating 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT have been performed to date. 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity for detecting benign renal lesions, particularly renal oncocytomas. 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT demonstrates near-perfect specificity for benign and low-grade renal lesions. The optimal quantified threshold ratio for tumor-to-background renal parenchyma radiotracer uptake for a positive result is > 0.6. In this article, we propose a modified diagnostic algorithm for small enhancing renal masses measuring 1-4 cm in which suspected benign lesions after conventional imaging are considered for 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT-CT. In this algorithm, positive studies can be monitored with active surveillance rather than requiring invasive biopsy and/or targeted therapy.