2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 14-19
Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by developmental defects of dorsal limb structures, the kidney, and the eye, that manifest as dysplastic nails, hypoplastic or absent patella, elbow dysplasia, iliac horns, glomerulopathy, and adult-onset glaucoma, respectively. This disorder is inherited in an autosomal dominant mode and is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the LMX1B gene, which encodes the LIM homeodomain transcription factor LMX1B. In this study, we report the clinical findings of a Spanish family, from the Canary Islands, with three affected members who displayed varying phenotypes. DNA sequence analysis identified a novel heterozygous missense mutation in LMX1B, c.305A>G, p.(Y102C), that segregated with the disease. The tyrosine residue affected by the mutation is highly conserved in evolution, and is located in the LIM-A domain, next to one of the cysteine residues involved in zinc binding, suggesting that p.(Y102C) affects LMX1B function by disturbing its interactions with other proteins. Our results expand the mutation spectrum of LMX1B and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of NPS pathology.