2019 Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 161-164
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most frequent solid malignant tumors in men 20-34 years of age and the most frequent cause of death from solid tumors in this age group. In addition, the incidence of these tumors has significantly increased over the last few decades. Testicular germ cell tumors are classified into seminoma and nonseminoma germ cell tumors (NSGCTs). NSGCTs can be further divided into embryonal carcinoma, Teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and choriocarcinoma. There are noteworthy differences about therapy and prognosis of seminomas and nonseminoma germ cell tumors, even though both share characteristics of the primordial germ cells (PGCs). Many discovered biomarkers including HMGA1, GPR30, Aurora-B, estrogen receptor β, and others have given further advantage to discriminate between histological subgroups and could represent useful molecular therapeutic targets.