Article ID: 2021.01055
Endocrine disorders are common in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Whether hypothyroidism is present in patients with PWS, and especially infants and young children, remains unclear. The aims of this study were to evaluate thyroid function in patients with PWS, to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction, and to evaluate the effect of growth hormone on thyroid function. Subjects were 23 patients with PWS ages 3 months to 3 years who were followed for up to one year. Four patients were lost to follow-up after the first visit. The remaining 19 patients were treated with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). PWS was diagnosed based on a genetic analysis. Free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were evaluated before and after growth hormone treatment. A total of 9 patients (9/23 = 39.1%) developed abnormal thyroid function. Five out of 23 patients (21.7%) had abnormal thyroid function before growth hormone treatment. Four patients developed thyroid dysfunction during the 3- to 9-month period of rhGH treatment. Of the 9 patients with abnormal thyroid function, 7 (5 boys, 2 girls) had central hypothyroidism, and the other 2 patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. TSH levels were higher in patients with PWS due to maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) than in patients with PWS due to a 15q11-q13 deletion. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was high in infants and young children with PWS. Thyroid function should be regularly monitored in patients with PWS at both diagnosis and follow-up.