ISIJ International
Online ISSN : 1347-5460
Print ISSN : 0915-1559
ISSN-L : 0915-1559
Regular Article
Characterization of Precipitated Carbon by XPS and Its Prevention Mechanism of Sticking during Reduction of Fe2O3 Particles in the Fluidized Bed
Ben ZhangZhi WangXuzhong GongZhancheng Guo
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2013 Volume 53 Issue 3 Pages 411-418


The Fe2O3 particles with the diameter between 74 and 150 μm were pre-reduced with CO at 923 K to precipitate the carbon on the surface. Then the particles were reduced by CO at 1173 K in the fluidized bed for examining the efficiency of the precipitated carbon for preventing the sticking. The result showed that the sticking of particles with high metallization ratio could be retarded or prevented by the precipitated carbon. For clarifying the prevention mechanism of the sticking, the carbon in different states was characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and its effects on sticking were discussed. The carbon on the surface was divided into two states, the graphitic carbon and the carbon in Fe3C. On account of the sticking of Fe3C at approximately 1054 K and the sticking of the sponge iron at the micron scale, the structural change of the precipitated iron by the carburization and the formation of Fe3C only retard the sticking. Therefore, the prevention of the sticking at 1173 K was attributed to the graphitic carbon. Due to the formation of metallic iron layer avoiding the consumption of the carbon and the formation of Fe3C restraining the dissolution of the graphitic carbon, the graphitic carbon accumulated on the surface of the particles, resulted in nC/nFe above 1.0, so that Fe3C and the metallic iron was coated by the graphitic carbon to block their contact among the particles.

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© 2013 by The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan
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