1992 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 50-56
The physical phenomena occurring during passage of bubbles through liquid/liquid interfaces have been investigated with high-speed photography. Several combinations of liquid/liquid systems were used which can be divided into those with large and with small interfacial energy and density difference. Several examples of photo series are given. A summary of the various events can be documented by history diagrams. In all the systems material of the lower phase is carried into the upper phase. The photo series can be used to obtain quantitative data for residence time, film thickness, length of jet, interfacial area, droplet number, droplet size and others.