1992 Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 529-537
The deoxidation system in the ESR process is a complex balance between atmosphere/slag/metal reactions involving the alloy composition, the electrode inclusion content and additions of metallic deoxidants during melting. We describe the relative contributions of slag/metal reactions and added deoxidants to the inclusion-forming system. It is concluded that the oxide compositions found in ESR ingots of low alloy steel can be explained using the slag FeO content as a monitor of the reaction scheme. Following this finding we also conclude that it is not possible in presently-developed ESR systems to produce oxide (or sulphide) inclusions with a Ca-content sufficiently high for shape control.