2002 Volume 42 Issue 10 Pages 1125-1134
A finite element modeling for the simulation of metallo-thermo-mechanical behavior and for the diffusion of carbon and nitrogen during carburized or carbonitrided quenching has been developed. In this modeling, both effects of the diffusion of carbon and nitrogen on transformation kinetics, and of the lattice expansion by the interstitial solutes on the constitutive relations of stress/strain are taken into account. Based on the modeling, prediction of carbon and nitrogen contents, microstructure and stress/distortion in cylinders after carburized or carbonitrided quenching are performed. The effects of carbon and nitrogen contents on the distributions of microstructure and residual stresses are discussed. The calculated results show a good agreement with the measured residual stresses. The agreement proves that the finite element modeling proposed in this paper is effective for numerical simulation of carburized or carbonitrided quenching.