2004 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 447-461
Considerable efforts have been made during the past two decades to develop reliable and effective macroscopic process models for inert gas stirred ladles. The primary objective of these has been to develop simplified equations/expressions embodying a set of key operating variables such as ladle dimensions, gas flow rate, nozzle/tuyère dimension and so on for hydrodynamics, scaling criterion, structure and profiles of the gas-liquid two phase plume, mixing, heat and mass transfer between solids and bulk liquid etc. An exhaustive literature search on the subject indicates that both fundamental as well as empirical approaches were adopted by investigators to develop these simplified process models. It was further noted that a vast majority of these studies applied aqueous model of gas stirred ladle systems as a means to arrive at or validate such models. Parallel to this, limited available evidence within the literature also suggests that macroscopic models, despite being simplistic have a sound basis and therefore can form a reasonably reliable predictive framework, particularly in the absence of any elaborate computer solutions, for first hand analysis of rate processes in gas stirred ladles.