2007 Volume 16 Issue 4 Pages 199-206
The general objective of this study was to demonstrate that the application of low level laser therapy (LLLT), in addition to standard procedures employed to treat periodontal disease, improves the outcome of the treatment. Periodontal disease is an infectious process that is the leading cause of tooth loss and attacks the structures of the periodontium (the ligaments around the teeth), the gingivae, epithelial attachment, cementum that cover the root of the tooth, and the alveolar bone that supports the tooth. Diabetes mellitus is a strong risk factor for periodontal disease. Diabetic individuals are three times more likely to have attachment and bone loss than non-diabetic patients. Furthermore, osteoporosis is always associated with alveolar bone loss. Women with osteoporosis have increased alveolar bone retraction, attachment loss, and tooth loss compared with women without osteoporosis. Estrogen deficiency has been linked to decreases in alveolar bone. There is evidence that LLLT has an anti-bacterial effect, acts as anti-inflammatory agent, and stimulates collagen and bone growth. Over the last decade, much progress has been made in elucidating the underlying principles. Approximately half of the diabetic patients and half of the patients with osteoporosis received LLLT in addition to the classical treatment. In this study we searched for the effects of LLLT on advance chronic periodontal diseases that had caused severe destruction of the periodontal structures, i.e., clinical attachment loss over 5 mm. increased bone loss, increased pocket depth (usually 5 mm or grater) and increased tooth mobility. For all four groups [(1) diabetic patients treated with LLLT; (2) diabetic patients without LLLT; (3) osteoporotic patients treated with LLLT; and (4) osteoporotic patients without LLLT) we determined the mean and standard deviations of the following parameters: gingival bleeding time, pain relief time, bone recovery time, inflammation, complete healing. The LLLT-treated groups were superior to the non-treated control groups in both the diabetic and osteoporotic patients General social benefits are the development of a novel LLLT modality for treatment of periodontal disease, which allows for early noninvasive treatment of periodontal infection. LLLT technology promises to become even more cost effective and may reduce the cost of patient care.