2017 Volume 17 Issue 3 Pages 3_1-3_12
The earthquake and associated aftershocks that occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan on March 11, 2011 caused liquefaction over a large area in the mouth of the Tone River. This study aims to establish a spatial relationship between sand-boiling and the damage done to buried pipelines in the zones of concentrated liquefaction-induced damage in the Kashima region. The pipeline repair rate in the sand-boiling area was roughly 10 times as high as that in the liquefaction-induced pipeline-damage concentration zones. As the pipeline within the sand-boiling area enlarges, percentage of damage occurrence increased and its damage occurred more near the boundaries of the sand-boiling area.