The Annual of Animal Psychology
Online ISSN : 1883-6283
Print ISSN : 0003-5130
ISSN-L : 0003-5130
Social life of semi-wild horses in Toimisaki
II Horses in their winter-quarters
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1953 Volume 3 Pages 11-31


1. There are about 70 semi-wild horses in Toimisaki, of which only three are males. They are usually seen on the open pasture situated on the ridge of the mountain during the summer (from April to September) for grazing and copulation. But during the winter (from October to March) they go down in the forests of the mountain side where they find their own home territories.
2. There are two peaks in the above-mentioned open pasture. The horses which frequent either of the two peaks are as a rule identical according to the location of their own home territories.
3. In their home territories most horses live alone, but some live together in groups, which consist of from two to six.
4. Their territories often overlap one another. Neighborhood relation is held among the horses which live in territories overlapping one another. The territory of a male covers those of several females. Accordingly a kind of community relation the center of which is a male seems to be held among these horses.
5. The shape of the territory traced by the movement of the occupant is sometimes zonal or lineal. A nomadic movement like a pendulum is observed in such a territory.

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