2023 Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 8-16
Hemorrhoids, the most common anorectal disease, give rise to symptoms such as bleeding, prolapse, and pruritus. The treatment for advanced hemorrhoids (Grade III or IV) is gradually shifting toward minimally invasive procedures. These procedures focus on reduction of blood flow in hemorrhoids. Conventional hemorrhoidectomy (CH), also known as Milligan-Morgan or Ferguson hemorrhoidectomy, is considered as the standard treatment for Grade III and IV hemorrhoids because it achieves the lowest recurrence rate. Over the years, alternative minimally invasive techniques such as stapled hemorrhoidopexy and transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD) have been developed. A new, effective sclerosant, aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA), has been developed in Japan and has been used for all grades of hemorrhoids; however, its effectiveness declines over time. Other minimally invasive, nonsurgical procedures, including rubber band ligation, endoscopic injection sclerotherapy, and infrared coagulation, have also been performed for Grade III hemorrhoids. Those minimally invasive treatments improve bleeding and prolapse and are highly recommended for patients who are unfit for CH. THD with mucopexy or ALTA sclerotherapy has also been performed for Grade IV hemorrhoids. However, the recurrence rate after ALTA sclerotherapy for Grade IV hemorrhoids was higher than that for Grade III lesions in our case study. In conclusion, minimally invasive treatments are a valid alternative for patients with advanced hemorrhoids after clear explanation of recurrence rates and possible complications.