Aim: We determined the association of lower-body fat mass (LFM) and trunk fat mass (TFM) with cardiometabolic risk factors and adipokines in young, healthy, slim women.
Methods: A total of 481 college female students underwent the following: regional body fat distribution as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and fasting blood sampling for measurement of lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), liver enzymes and adipokines.
Results: After adjusting for TFM, LFM was positively associated with HDL cholesterol, adiponectin, pre-heparin lipoprotein lipase and insulin sensitivity, as estimated by the Matsuda index, whereas it was negatively related to triglycerides, apo B, apo B/A1 ratio, small dense LDL, FFA, glucose and insulin at 2h during OGTT, area under the curve of insulin response during OGTT and the white blood cell count. Participants were divided into 9 groups according to tertiles of TFM and LFM. In the middle tertile of TFM, HDL cholesterol and adiponectin increased and triglycerides, apoB/A1 ratio and plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 decreased from the low to high LFM tertiles. Gamma-glutamyltransferase levels in middle and high LFM tertiles were lower than in the lower LFM tertile.
Conclusion: For a given level of trunk fat mass, a higher lower-body fat mass is associated with an advantageous profile of not only blood lipoproteins but also serum adipokines, even in healthy, slim women in early adulthood.