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Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Vol. 20 (2013) No. 2 p. 123-133




Cardiovascular disease is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is the principle cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. In patients with stage 5 CKD, structural changes in the myocardium have been implicated as the principle cardiovascular processes leading to this increase in morbidity and mortality, while atherosclerotic events including acute myocardial infarction and strokes are responsible for approximately 10-15% of cardiovascular deaths. Dyslipidemia is common in CKD patients and is usually not characterized by elevated cholesterol levels, except in patients with marked proteinuria. Increased triglyceride levels in conjunction with decreased high-density lipoprotein levels are the commonest qualitative abnormality. Characteristically, abnormalities in the metabolism of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins have been described, including both gut derived (apoB-48) as well as those produced by hepatic synthesis (apoB-100). A decrease in enzymatic delipidation as well as reduced receptor removal of these lipoproteins both contribute to the increased levels of these apo-B-containing particles and their remnants (which are believed to be highly atherogenic). Abnormalities in the metabolism of apoA-containing lipoproteins are also present and these changes contribute to the lower levels of HDL seen. Qualitative abnormalities of these HDL particles may be associated with cellular oxidative injury and contribute to a pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic milieu that is frequently present in CKD patients.

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