2017 Volume 24 Issue 12 Pages 1206-1214
Aim: Many cohort studies have shown that increased trans fatty acid (TFA) intake increases the risk of developing coronary heart disease. However, whether TFA intake is directly associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) remains unknown.
Methods: We performed the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in two Japanese cohorts: a cohort of 454 native Japanese living in Hiroshima, Japan, and a cohort of 426 Japanese-Americans living in Los Angeles, USA, who shared identical genetic predispositions but had different lifestyles. Serum elaidic acid concentration was measured and compared, and its association with insulin resistance was assessed.
Results: Serum elaidic acid concentrations were significantly higher in the Japanese-Americans (median, 18.2 µmol/L) than in the native Japanese (median, 11.0 µmol/L). The serum elaidic acid concentrations in the native Japanese DM group (16.0 µmol/L) were significantly higher compared with those in the normal glucose tolerance (10.8 µmol/L) and impaired glucose tolerance (11.7 µmol/L) groups. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that serum elaidic acid concentrations were significantly positively associated with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values after adjusting for various factors.
Conclusions: These results suggest that excessive TFA intake worsens insulin resistance and increases the risk of developing DM even in the native Japanese, whose intakes of animal fat and simple carbohydrates were presumed to be lower than those of the Japanese-Americans.