2019 Volume 26 Issue 7 Pages 624-635
Aims: Recent studies suggest elevated levels of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) can predict the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD), even in individuals considered to be at low risk for cardiovascular disease(CVD) based on their LDL-C levels. This study aims to prospectively investigate the association between sdLDL-C concentration and traditional and nontraditional CHD risk markers to explore the underlying roles of sdLDL-C in atherogenic processes.
Methods: Between 2009 and 2011, 594 healthy volunteers aged 35–65 years were recruited as control subjects in a study of work-related risk factors and acute CHD. All participants fasted for 12–14 h, and venous blood samples were collected in the morning to measure serum lipid profiles and other CHD-related markers. A standard oral glucose tolerance test was performed on all participants to assess their subclinical diabetes and prediabetes status.
Results: There were significantly positive associations between sdLDL-C concentration and traditional (age, smoking and alcohol drinking habit, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum lipid profiles, and diabetes status) and nontraditional risk factors (complete blood counts, (CBC), fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and subclinical diabetes status) for CVD. After adjusting for confounding variables which include age, gender, BMI, hypertension, household income, and smoking and alcohol drinking habits, all atherosclerotic risk markers except D-dimer were significantly and positively associated with sdLDL-C.
Conclusions: Our data indicated sdLDL-C is strongly associated with atherosclerotic risk markers, such as inflammation, thrombosis, hematological markers, and prediabetes. This study supports the hypothesis that sdLDL-C is a promising CVD risk biomarker.