Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Online ISSN : 1880-3873
Print ISSN : 1340-3478
ISSN-L : 1340-3478
Original Article
Cumulative Cigarette Consumption is Associated with Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI) Mediated by Abdominal Obesity Assessed by A Body Shape Index (ABSI): A Cross-Sectional Study
Daiji NagayamaJesse C KrakauerNir Y KrakauerTomonori SugiuraYasuhiro WatanabeKazuhiro ShimizuAtsuhito SaikiKenji SuzukiKentaro FujishiroKohji Shirai
Author information

2023 Volume 30 Issue 12 Pages 1870-1881


Aim: To elucidate the mechanism by which cigarette smoking causes vascular damage, we examined the relationship between cumulative cigarette consumption and abdominal obesity, and the possible mediating effect of smoking on arterial stiffness.

Methods: Cross-sectional data from 19499 never smokers and 5406 current smokers receiving health screening was analyzed. Abdominal obesity was assessed by ABSI, and arterial stiffness by CAVI. High CAVI was defined as CAVI ≥ 9.0.

Results: Current smoker showed higher ABSI than never smokers after propensity score matching. Cumulative cigarette consumption expressed in pack-years correlated with ABSI (Rs: 0.312 in men, 0.252 in women), and was also extracted as an independent factor associated with ABSI by multiple regression analysis. A linear relationship between pack-year and CAVI was observed (Rs: 0.544 in men, 0.423 in women). Pack-year had almost equal discriminatory power in predicting high CAVI in both sexes (C-statistic: 0.774 in men, 0.747 in women), and the best cut-offs of pack-year for high CAVI were 24.5 in men and 14.7 in women. Bivariate logistic regression models revealed that the association between pack-year higher than cut-off and high CAVI was independent of traditional risks. A mediating effect of ABSI (mediation rate: 9.9% in men and 11.2% in women), but not waist circumference (WC), on the association of pack-year with CAVI was observed, after adjusting for traditional risks.

Conclusion: Cumulative cigarette smoking in pack-years was independently associated with ABSI. ABSI partially mediates the association between pack-year and CAVI, suggesting that abdominal obesity partially mediates smoking-related vascular dysfunction.

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