Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Online ISSN : 1880-3873
Print ISSN : 1340-3478
ISSN-L : 1340-3478
Original Article
Hyperhomocysteinemia Increases Vascular Risk in Stroke Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Takafumi MizunoTakao HoshinoKentaro IshizukaSono ToiShuntaro TakahashiSho WakoSatoko AraiKazuo Kitagawa
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2023 Volume 30 Issue 9 Pages 1198-1209


Aims: We aimed to assess the prognostic impact of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) on the recurrent vascular event risk in stroke patients with or without chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: In this prospective observational study, 621 patients (mean age, 69.5 years; male, 62.2%) with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were consecutively enrolled within 1 week of onset and followed-up for 1 year. HHcy was defined as elevated levels of fasting total homocysteine >15 µmol/L. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or a history of renal replacement therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including nonfatal stroke, nonfatal acute coronary syndrome, major peripheral artery disease, and vascular death.

Results: The prevalence of HHcy was 18.5%. Patients with HHcy were more likely to have intracranial (37.4% versus 24.8%; p=0.008) and extracranial (20.9% versus 13.0%; p=0.037) artery stenosis than were those without HHcy. At 1 year, patients with HHcy were at a greater risk of MACE than were those without HHcy (annual rate, 17.8% versus 10.4%; log-rank p=0.033). In the Cox proportional hazard regression models, HHcy was independently associated with an increased risk of MACE in patients with CKD (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-4.20), whereas HHcy was not predictive of MACE in those without CKD (adjusted HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.30-3.32).

Conclusions: Elevated levels of serum homocysteine can be an important modifiable risk factor in stroke patients with CKD, but not in those without CKD.

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