Article ID: 55327
Aims: Although intensive statin therapy reduced cardiovascular risks, cardiovascular events have not been completely prevented. Probucol is a potent antioxidant and reduces tendon xanthomas in familial hypercholesterolemia patients despite reduction of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HDL-C). We investigated whether probucol can reduce cardiovascular events on top of conventional lipid-lowering therapy in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).
Methods: PROSPECTIVE is a multicenter, randomized, prospective study that recruited 876 Japanese patients with CHD and dyslipidemia with an low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (HDL-C) level of ≥ 140 mg/dL without medication or those treated with lipid-lowering drugs. Lipid-lowering agents were administered during the study period in the control group (n=438), and probucol 500 mg/day was added to lipid-lowering therapy in the probucol group (n=438). Patients were randomly assigned to two treatment groups by adjusting the LDL-C level and presence of diabetes and hypertension and followed up for more than 3 years. The primary end point was a composite of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events (cardiovascular disease death including sudden death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, hospitalization for heart failure, or coronary revascularization). The secondary end point was carotid intima–media thickness in a subset of patients.
Results: The incidence of the primary end point showed a trend to be lower in the probucol group compared with that in the control group despite reduced HDL-C without serious adverse events. Anti-atherogenic effects of probucol may be attributed to its potent antioxidative function and enhancement of reverse cholesterol transport.
Conclusion: Since there was no statistical significance between the probucol and control groups despite a marked reduction of HDL-C, further studies on the clinical outcomes of probucol on top of conventional therapy may be necessary in the future (UMIN000003307).