2017 Volume 125 Issue 4 Pages 193-201
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a well suited method for studying the properties of electrochemical systems. In recent decades electrochemical systems were investigated at different scales, from small model electrodes to high power devices, such as fuel cells and batteries. In the latter case, the measurement of reliable spectra and their evaluation is challenging because (i) the impedance is usually very low (<<1 Ω), (ii) there is more than one rate limiting, electrochemical process per electrode, (iii) their charge transfer and transport processes are coupled and (iv) cathodic and anodic contributions overlap in the frequency domain. The Distribution of Relaxation Times (DRT) is supportive when deconvoluting complex impedance spectra, and has therefore gained increased attention. In this paper we introduce selected results of advanced impedance analysis. We discuss the impact of impedance data quality, statistically distributed noise and single errors in the spectra. Furthermore, the applicability of DRT for establishing adequate equivalent circuit models for ceramic electrochemical devices, such as batteries and fuel cells will be discussed.