2018 Volume 18 Issue 3 Pages 39-46
The effectiveness of regenerated chicken bone char (CBC) in fluoride removal was investigated in the present study based on physical regeneration, chemical regeneration, and combined physical and chemical regeneration. Heat treatment was studied as the physical regeneration method, and phosphate treatment was studied as the chemical regeneration method. The results revealed that combined physical and chemical regeneration was the best method, yielding the highest fluoride adsorption capacity of CBC. The ion exchange incorporated with the chemical precipitation of the hydroxyapatite structure of bone char was observed during the fluoride adsorption. The structure of hydroxyapatite did not change during the adsorption. The regeneration of CBC is possible, and it could be used as a low-cost defluoridation technique.