2014 Volume 123 Issue 1 Pages 89-122
The evolution of 84 volcanoes in the Philippines is outlined geomorphologically on the basis of interpretations of volcanic landforms using aerial photographs, topographic maps, satellite images, and geomorphological and geological field surveys. Fifty-six stratovolcanoes, three caldera, three lava domes, four scoria cones, four lava fields, and 10 shield volcanoes are identified. Large basaltic volcanoes such as lava fields and shield volcanoes were found unexpectedly in subduction zones. No lava field or shield volcano has been discovered on the Japanese Islands. Among the 34 subduction zones in the world, 19 do not have lava fields or shield volcanoes. Two oblique subduction zones form the Philippine Fault Zone. The fault zone mostly coincides with the eastern volcanic zone. At the southwestern part of Mindanao Island, a volcanic chain, consisting of Bulibu, Basilan, and Cagayan Sulu lava fields, Balatukan, Mangabon, Katangrad, Kalatungan, Makaturing, Bacolod, and Pagayawan shield volcanoes, and Pagadian lava domes (monogenetic volcanoes) trends northeast-southwest, in parallel with the trenches and main arcs. The association of the volcanoes with the trenches and arcs suggests that the volcanic chain is a marginal sea ridge between Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea and that the back-arc basin ridge might have extended under Mindanao Island from Moro Gulf to the northern part of Mindanao Island.