2014 Volume 123 Issue 5 Pages 739-750
The eruption sequences of two caldera volcanoes, Aira in Japan and Irosin in the Philippines, were examined, and an eruption sequence for caldera volcanoes is constructed as follows: first, eruptions of felsic magma as a precursory event; second, a plinian eruption associated with intra-plinian flows followed; third, a fine-grained ignimbrite eruption occurred, which is followed by a catastrophic caldera-forming eruption; fourth, voluminous co-ignimbrite ash was generated and dispersed over a wide area; and, finally, post-caldera volcanoes were formed. In addition, intense earthquakes occurred either at the late stage of the plinian phase of the Irosin caldera or shortly before the final caldera-forming eruption of the Aira caldera. A similar eruption sequence was observed for the 7.3 cal ka BP caldera-forming eruption at Kikai caldera in Japan. Therefore, the eruption sequences observed at caldera volcanoes in Japan and the Philippines are considered to form the most fundamental processes of a caldera-forming eruption.