2020 Volume 129 Issue 5 Pages 665-676
Lake bottom springs play an important role in maintaining water quality in the Fuji Five Lakes. However, the sources of these springs and the hydrological delivery mechanisms have yet to be identified. To determine the sources of spring water of Lake Kawaguchi, samples were collected directly from lake bottom springs, and oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios were obtained, along with vanadium concentrations. Visual observations and water-quality analyses of the samples reveal that cold and oxygen-rich water is discharged from the lake floor, which is covered by gravel with diameters of 10-50 cm over an area of approximately 9 m (east–west) by about 13 m (north–south). The water temperature of the springs remained relatively constant at around 11.3°C during the stratified period in 2016; however, the temperature fluctuated significantly in 2017, even during the stratified period, suggesting a temporary decrease or stoppage of water being discharged from springs into the lake. Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic ratios of lake bottom springs were determined to be higher than those of groundwater in the southern part of Lake Kawaguchi; however, they displayed values close to those of groundwater in the northern part of Lake Kawaguchi, suggesting that spring water primarily originated from groundwater in the Misaka Mountains.