2018 Volume 14 Issue 2 Pages 77-89
In this study, the effect of school mountaineering on self-efficacy of junior and senior high school students was examined. The questionnaire survey targeted students of two junior high schools and two senior high schools that conduct mountain climbing events in Nagano Prefecture；there were 531 students in the mountain climbing group and 73 students in the control group. Self-efficacy was measured before, after, and one month after conducting the mountain climbing event, among members of the mountaineering group, as well as among the members of the control group around the same time. Furthermore, after mountain climbing, a questionnaire based on Bandura's Four Sources of Efficacy Expectations, Hatano et al.'s Five Conditions of Efficacy Enhancement, and experiences of mountain climbing was conducted among students who were in the mountain climbing group. Results revealed that self-efficacy of students who participated in school mountaineering increased after mountain climbing and was sustained for a month thereafter. On the contrary, self-efficacy of students in the control group did not change. Self-efficacy was enhanced among students who had low self-efficacy before climbing than those who had higher self-efficacy before climbing. The factors that were related to changes in self-efficacy in school mountaineering included impression of nature in mountains, vicarious experiences (Bandura's Four Sources of Efficacy Expectations), and warm interactions with others (Hatano et al.'s Five Conditions of Efficacy Enhancement). Therefore, in school mountaineering, it appears that self-efficacy may be enhanced by being impressed of nature in mountains, seeing friends who are doing their best, and having warm interactions with friends.