2019 Volume 28 Issue 1 Pages 53-69
Seeds are not only the most indispensable inputs for crop farming but also an integral part of biological diversity. FAO has long been drawing attention for sustainable management of seeds and importance of continuous and conscious participation of farmers in such efforts. With this background, although management of seeds is an important issue to be analyzed for realization of sustainable development, existing framework of analyses is mostly based on economic valuation of seeds with right-based approach for management. In this article, the author first explains various understandings of use value and non-use value of seeds as genetic resources. Then, the author introduces existing frameworks of management of genetic resources established in the present world, referring to international legal frameworks, namely Convention on Biological Diversity, The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, and International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants. Farmers' Rights and Food Sovereignty ideas are also explained. Then, practices on the fields are presented to show realities of management by stakeholders, especially farmers, and academic perception on such practices including Endogenous Development and Sustainable Livelihoods Approach is also discussed. Emphases are drawn to farmers' perception on seeds as non-commodity and subjects of co-existence in day-to-day practices, and also to outsiders' attitudes of cherishing this perception. Bridging the ideas of political-economy approach and field-based agronomy approach is proposed for realization of sustainable management of seeds.