Volume 96 (2017) Issue 8 Pages 255-260
Recent technologies in the production of chemicals and bio-materials products are focusing on lignocellulosic resources since it is the world’s most abundant material, low cost, as well as sustainable. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of three main compounds: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Productions of carbon fiber from lignin as its precursor are proposed to reduce the usage of fossil fuel based materials. However, the difficulties on recovering lignin from biomass are widely known. Therefore, several studies were conducted to explore possible technologies to isolate lignin from the complex lignocellulosic biomass in simple and minimal cost. One of the potential technologies is by using sub- and supercritical fluids. The polymer made of from phenylpropane units (p-coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol), the building block of lignin in plants can be converted to low molecular weight compounds using sub- and supercritical fluid technology with diverse applications including carbon fiber production. Hence, this paper aims to review on the lignin extraction from lignocellulosic biomass using sub- and supercritical fluid technology as precursor for carbon fiber production.