1938 Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 145-166
1. This paper described the extent of the wastage, the classification of diseases of the banana in transport from Formosa and their etiological relations. Moreover, by studying the relations of temperature to the growth of several important fungi, the general control method was discussed.
2. The wastage of the banana in transport from Formosa is counted to be about 2% of the total number of the discharging cargos and ca. 300, 000 Yen per year. 87% of the wastage is regarded to be the loss due to diseases, among which 59% of the wastage is due to non-infectious diseases and 28% to infectious diseases.
3. The writer classified the diseases of the banana in transport as follows:
(1) non-infectious diseases, so-called physiological diseases green-ripeness, “Kaze-hiki”.
(2) infectious diseases
a) main-stalk rot- “Ziku-kusare” disease
b) finger-stalk rot-finger dropping
c) finger rot-black-rot disease, sclerotium disease, graymould disease, anthracnose, black-spot disease.
4. The green-ripeness is a physiological disease due to excessive high temperatures, and on the contrary “Kaze-hiki” is caused by excessive low temperatures. The causal fungi of the infectious diseases were proved to be as follows:
“Ziku-kusare” disease - Thiclaviopsis paradoxa (de SEYNES) von HÖHN., Botryodiplodia Theobromae PAT., Glocosporium musarum CKE. et MASSEE, Fusarium spp. etc.
finger dropping - Glocosporium musarum CKE. et MASSEE etc.
blcak-rot disease - Botryodiplodia Theobromae PAT.
sclerotium disease - Corticium centrifugum (LÉV.) BRES.
gray-mould disease - Rhizopus nigricans EHR.
anthracnose - Gloeosporium musarum CKE. et MASSEE
black-spot disease-Macrophoma Musae (CKE.) BERL. et VOGL.
5. Botryodiplodia Theobromac PAT. and Glocosporium musarum CKE. et MASSEE grow scarcely at ca. 11°C, While Thiclaviopsis paradoxa (de SEYNES) von HÖHN. is able to grow a little slowly at the same temperature.
6. Judging from the results of the writer's experiments, the refrigerated transport at about 11°C seems to be the most effective control method for the wastage.