2008 Volume 7.1 Issue 1 Pages 10-20
Cellular polyamines of 44 newly validated eubacterial thermophiles growing at 45-80°C, belonging to eight orders (six phyla) of the domain Bacteria, were analyzed by HPLC and GC. A quaternary branched penta-amine, N4-bis(aminopropyl)norspermidine, was found in Hydrogenivirga and Sulfurihydrogenibium belonging to the order of Aquificales. Another quaternary branched penta-amine, N4-bis(aminopropyl) spermidine, was detected in Thermovibrio, Desulfurobacterium (Aquificales), Moorella, Desul-fovirgula (Thermoanaerobacteriales), Thermaerobacter (Clostridiales), Caldalkalibacillus, Thermobacillus (Bacillales), and Desulfothermus (Desulfovibrionales of the phylum Proteobacteria). The two branched penta- amines as well as linear penta- and hexa-amines were produced by Thermus species of the order Thermales. Marinitoga and Fervidobacterium (Thermotogales) contained linear penta-amines. The production of these long polyamines was dependent on culture temperature and remarkable at 70-80°C in the extreme/ hyper-thermophiles and to alkaline medium pH 8.5-9.0 in moderately thermophilic bacilli. The long polyamines were not detected in moderately thermophilic Anaerolinea (Anaerolineales of the phylum Chloroflexi). Distribution of either or both long linear polyamines and/or quaternary branched polyamines in the extreme/hyper-thermophiles is also reflected in their phylogenetical evolved locations.