Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Online ISSN : 2185-744X
Print ISSN : 1342-6133
ISSN-L : 1342-6133
Special articles
Breeding Management of Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) in Range Countries and Zoos
Chatchote THITARAM
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2012 Volume 17 Issue 3 Pages 91-96


The in situ and ex situ populations of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) are rapidly decreasing. It is crucial to breed elephants in captivity so that captive stocks do not need to be supplied by wild capturing. The low birth and high mortality rate cause the captive population to decline rapidly. Captive breeding programs in Asian elephants range countries and zoos have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining. Maintaining the captive populations in tourist and timber elephant camps, circus, zoos or any elephant facilities would be essential to prevent a drain of wild populations and to decrease illegal wild capture. In this review article, the breeding management of the elephant facilities in range countries and western zoos was addressed, with the history, limitations, success, and methods of improvement. The co-operation among institutes across countries and continents to conserve this endangered species.

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© 2012 Japanese Society of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
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