In this study the aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) of Asian dust is evaluated by model simulation at Gosan, Jeju using the data from a sun/sky radiometer, a Micro-Pulse Lidar (MPL), and column radiometer measurements of solar downwelling irradiance in April, 2001. We suggest a method of determining aerosol parameters for the radiative transfer model from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data set. Since the AERONET measurements provide the refractive indices at only four wavelengths, and the aerosol parameters can be calculated at these wavelengths with a Mie code, we use a linear regression method for extending these measurements to the full wavelength spectrum of the radiative transfer model.
The aerosol forcing by the Asian dust aerosols is estimated and compared to the aerosol forcing of non-dust aerosols. On the Asian dust event day, April 13, the daily average ADRF was estimated as -58.1 W/m² at the surface and -25.7 W/m² at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). On April 15, a nondust day slightly influenced by anthropogenic aerosols, the ADRF was -29.0 W/m² at the surface and -11.6 W/m² at the TOA. Although the Asian dust aerosols show larger forcing, its forcing efficiency (forcing per unit optical thickness) is smaller than that of non-dust aerosols; ²41.0 W/m²/τ670 at the TOA and -94.9 W/m²/τ670 at the surface on the dust day for dust aerosols, as opposed to -50.0 W/m²/τ670 at the TOA and -129.3 W/m²/τ670 at the surface on the non-dust day for non-dust aerosols. We believe that this is due to the larger single scattering albedo of dust aerosols, which causes smaller absorption, and the larger asymmetry factor which causes more forward scattering or less reflection, compared to anthropogenic aerosols.
The model results were validated with the surface irradiance measurement data and the comparison showed a good agreement. The radiative transfer calculation underestimates the solar irradiance of 2∼3% on average. The aerosol profiles measured by lidar are used to estimate the influence of the vertical distribution of Asian dust aerosols on the ADRF. Using the vertical aerosol profiles, we found an instantaneous short wave radiative heating larger than 2 K/day. We believe the enhanced heating rate by the aerosol layers contributes to the increase in static stability within the dust layer. This fact is verified by the temperature profile measured by the sonde, and may explain the longevity and consequently long-range transport of Asian dust.
2004 by Meteorological Society of Japan