Volume 84A (2006) Pages 195-209
Diurnal and seasonal variations of raindrop size distribution (DSD) at Gadanki (GD), Singapore (SG) and Kototabang (KT) are studied to elucidate characteristics of DSD in the Asian monsoon region. It is found that DSDs are affected by diurnal convective cycles and seasonal variations in precipitation characteristics. GD has the most significant seasonal variation in DSD. Clear difference in rainfall characteristics between the Southwest and Northeast monsoon seasons is considered to be the main cause of such clear seasonal variation. KT has the most significant diurnal variation of DSD, which is probably caused by the fact that KT is greatly affected by ocean-land contrast and mountain effects to generate local convection in the afternoon. SG has less diurnal and seasonal variations compared with the other two locations, which is related to the fact that SG is affected both by land and oceanic rainfall. Z-R relations applicable to radar rainfall measurement in these areas are derived. It is shown that the use of the Marshall-Palmer Z-R relation (Z = 200R1.6) gives bias errors of about 1.5 dB or less in rain rate estimation except for the northeast monsoon season in GD, for 12∼18 local time during pre-southwest monsoon season in GD, and for 06∼12 local time during some monsoon seasons in KT.