Volume 95 (2017) Issue 4 Pages 217-237
In Part I of this study, the development processes of Baiu frontal depressions (BFDs) have been examined through case-study numerical experiments. The numerical simulations revealed that latent heating is dominant for the development of BFDs in the western part of the Baiu frontal zone (W-BFDs), west of approximately 140°E, while both latent heating and baroclinicity are important for the development of BFDs in the eastern part of the zone (E-BFDs), east of approximately 140°E. In this study, idealized numerical simulations with zonally homogeneous basic fields are conducted to obtain a more generalized perspective of the development processes of BFDs.
The basic fields for the idealized simulations are made from the composites of the environments under which 28 W-BFDs and 43 E-BFDs developed. The idealized simulations successfully reproduce a realistic W-BFD and E-BFD. The W-BFD has a slightly westward-tilted vertical structure, modulated by latent heating at low levels of the atmosphere. In contrast, the E-BFD has a westward-tilted structure through the troposphere, similar to the well-known baroclinic wave structure. Results of available potential energy diagnosis for the effects of latent heating and baroclinicity on the BFD development are consistent with those in Part I. The W-BFD has a mechanism mainly driven by latent heating yielding strong convection, while the E-BFD develops through baroclinic instability in moist atmosphere.