2020 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 615-636
Ozone loss pathways and their rates in the ozone quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), which is simulated by a chemistry-climate model developed by the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan, are evaluated using an objective pathway analysis program (PAP). The analyzed chemical system contains catalytic cycles caused by NOx, HOx, ClOx, Ox, and BrOx. PAP quantified the rates of all significant catalytic ozone loss cycles, and evaluated the partitioning among these cycles. The QBO amplitude of the sum of all cycles amounts to about 4 and 14 % of the annual mean of the total ozone loss rate at 10 and 20 hPa, respectively. The contribution of catalytic cycles to the QBO of the ozone loss rate is found to be as follows: NOx cycles contribute the largest fraction (50–85 %) of the QBO amplitude of the total ozone loss rate; HOx cycles are the second-largest (20–30 %) below 30 hPa and the third-largest (about 10 %) above 20 hPa; Ox cycles rank third (5–20 %) below 30 hPa and second (about 20 %) above 20 hPa; ClOx cycles rank fourth (5–10 %); and BrOx cycles are almost negligible. The relative contribution of the NOx and Ox cycles to the QBO amplitude of ozone loss differs by up to 10 % and 20 %, respectively, from their contribution to the annual mean ozone loss rate. The ozone QBO at 20 hPa is mainly driven by ozone transport, which then alters the ozone loss rate. In contrast, the ozone QBO at 10 hPa is driven chemically by NOx and the temperature dependence of [O]/[O3], which results from the temperature dependence of the reaction O + O2 + M → O 3 + M. In addition, the ozone QBO at 10 hPa is influenced by the overhead ozone column, which affects [O]/[O3] (through ozone photolysis) and the ozone production rate (through oxygen photolysis).