Article ID: 2019-008
Using brightness temperature data from passive microwave satellite imagery, this study examines tropical cyclones (TCs) with concentric eyewall (CE) in the western North Pacific between 1997 and 2011. The identified CEs are divided into two types according to the characteristics of the eyewall replacement cycle (ERC) in the microwave imagery: a CE with a typical ERC (T-ERC) and a CE without an ERC (N-ERC). Furthermore, N-ERCs can be classified into four categories. It is indicated that 88 % T-ERCs reach peak intensity near (0.2 h after on average) CE formation, whereas 90 % N-ERCs reach peak intensity prior to (22.0 h on average) CE formation
In general, N-ERCs tend to occur when there are strong interactions between the environment and the CE, while T-ERCs occur in a relatively quiet environment. The three-dimensional conceptual models of the environmental configurations for both CE types are proposed. Specifically, N-ERCs are accompanied by stronger southwesterly and southeasterly inflows, active low-level trough, and stronger subtropical high (SH) and South Asia high (SAH), compared with T-ERCs. For N-ERCs, the stronger inflows may bring in large amount of moisture, and the active low-level trough may result in large vertical wind shear (VWS). The stronger SH and SAH may contribute to changes in intensity and direction of the VWS for N-ERCs, and hence trigger the development of local convection in the outer eyewall. The asymmetries in the convection of the outer eyewall may weaken the ability to cut off the radial inflow to the inner eyewall. Consequently, N-ERCs fail to finish the ERC and weaken rapidly in intensity, even though the moisture remains sufficient after CE formation.