Article ID: 2019-026
The Okazaki heavy rainfall event, which occurred at midnight on 28 August 2008 around Okazaki city in Japan, was produced by a quasi-stationary band-shaped precipitation system. This precipitation system remained quasi-stationary for approximately 5 hours over Okazaki city and the surrounding area, and produced prolonged intense precipitation. This study presents sensitivity numerical experiments to examine the impact of surrounding mountainous topography on the quasi-stationarity of the precipitation system using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with 500 m horizontal resolution. In an experiment without the mountains to the east of Okazaki city, the quasi-stationary precipitation system was not reproduced. On the other hand, experiments including eastside mountains produced a low-level convergence in south of Okazaki city, resulting in the quasi-stationary precipitation system and prolonged precipitation as observed near Okazaki city. The convergence was formed by sustained easterlies together with northerly winds blowing in west of Okazaki city. The easterlies were maintained by westward shift of southeasterly inflow from the Pacific Ocean due to the enhanced pressure gradient on the upstream side of the eastside mountains in the low-level atmosphere with low Froude numbers (Fr < 0.5). The easterlies also steadily supplied warm and moist air to the quasi-stationary system, leading to the prolonged intense precipitation observed in the Okazaki heavy rainfall event.