Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II
Online ISSN : 2186-9057
Print ISSN : 0026-1165
ISSN-L : 0026-1165
The Vertical Distribution of Temperature in the Stratosphere and Troposphere over the Earth
H. Futi
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1937 Volume 15 Issue 12 Pages 558-572


Sie Napier Shaw, in his “Manual of Meteorology (1927)”, has given a very interesting diagram showing the distribution of temperature up to 25 kilometers over the northern hemisphere for summer and winter with continuous lines. K. R. Ramanathan has published in “Nature (June 1, 1929)” a very interesting chart which modified by using all the data available at that time and L. T. Samuels has made a very interesting comparison of his (Ramanathan) chart with the results of some new aerological observations made in U.S.A. which were not included in the data comprising the chart.
Recently E. Palmén has shown in “Meteorologische Zeitschrift (1934)” a very excellent diagram by using Rolf's observational results at Abisko (68°N) and Weickmann's data observed by “Graf Zeppelin”
On the other hand V. Bjerknes, J. Bjerknes, H. Solberg and T. Bergeron have given in their “Physikalische Hydrodynamik” reasonable diagrams different from the other's by showing the distribution of temperature over the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere (0°10°S) for summer and winter separately.
In this paper, therefore, the author showed diagrams over northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere (0°-30°S) for all months, and various diagrams showing annual ranges of temperature at all heights, annual changes of tropopause-heights in the meridional section and so on, by adding newest data from 1934 at the stations such as As (60°N), Agra (27°N), Poona (19°N), Madras (13°N), Ellendale (46°N), Omaha (41°N), Dallas (33°N), and Pretoria (26°S).
The principal features of the diagrams may be briefly summarized (1) The seasonal variations of temperature in the stratosphere over the earth are very great (see Fig. 6-Fig. 17 and Fig. 21), especially in the polar region. (The seasonal development of the tongue of warmer air from 45°N to north-pole is shown in the diagrams, in which the dotted lines are based on very few observations, or nothing and are therefore mainly conjectural.)
(2) The coldest air over the earth, of temperature about 185°A, lies at a height of some 17 dyn. km. over some equatorial region in the form of a flat ring surrounded by rings of warmer air and the center of the coldest region moves from about 4°N to 4°S. (see Fig. 19)
(3) The surfaces of tropopause are relatively flat between 23° and 0° for winter and between 32° and 0° for summer in the equatorial region, and between 55° and 90° for winter and between 60° and 90° for summer in the polar region. In winter there is a tendency for the height of tropopause to decrease from 25° to the equator and this tendency is explained by the effect of high pressure in the Asiatic continent. (see Fig. 18)
(4) The annual change of temperature is relatively small in the tropopause-surface (see Fig. 21).
(5) From about 45°N to the pole in the annual variation of temperature at all heights, the maximum rises in summer and the minimum in winter (As-type, see Fig. 23). From about 45° to the equator the same in troposphere, but on the contrary in the stratosphere the maximum in winter and the minimum in summer (Agra-type see Fig. 23 and Fig. 24).
(6) The annual variations of temperature in the stratosphere over the polar region may be explained by the annual variations of ozone and the height of tropopause in the meridional section also by means of the average height of ozone.

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