1972 Volume 50 Issue 6 Pages 570-576
It is shown that the long-period means of the transfers of momentum, sensible heat and water vapor in the air-sea interface may be expressed by several terms. The first term is the same expression as the so-called bulk formula making use of the transfer coefficient known from the micrometeorological observations. The other terms consist of the wind velocity variance, of the covariances between the wind velocity and sea-air temperature difference and between the wind velocity and sea-air water vapor pressure difference, and of the third-order correlation between the wind velocity, temperature and water vapor differences.
A statistical analysis was made for the data of wind, temperature and water vapor pressure obtained by twelve weather ships in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. And it is concluded that the time averaged quantities of the sensible and the latent heat transfers for the periods shorter than one day may be approximately calculated by the bulk formula using the time averaged values for the same period of the wind velocity and of the sea-air temperature and water vapor differences. On a certain occasion, however, for a period longer than few days the difference between the true heat transfer and the approximate value from calculation may become significant.