1983 Volume 61 Issue 2 Pages 222-238
Seasonal variations of heat budgets in both the atmosphere and the sea in the Japan Sea area are investigated for the period of a year from April 1978 to March 1979.
The net oceanic heat flux into the Japan Sea by the Tsushima Current attains the maximum value, which is three times as much as that by Miyazaki (1952) and provides more than a half of the heat stored in the Japan Sea in summer. The heat supply from the sea to the atmosphere is maintained by losing heat content of the Japan Sea in winter. The heat transport from the "warm-current" region to the "cold-current" region increases in winter. The heat transported into the Japan Sea by the Tsushima Current in summer is stored mainly in the "warm-current" region and contributes greatly to the wintertime heat supply from the Japan Sea to the atmosphere.
The very different features in heat and moisture budgets in the atmosphere in a year are exhibited owing to the large seasonal variations of the sea-air temperature difference, (Ts-Ta), and the specific humidity difference, (qs-qa). Amounts of sensible heat and latent heat supplied from the sea and the heating rate of the atmosphere are small in spring. The intense heating in the atmosphere is balanced with the condensation of water vapor in summer and autumn. In autumn the value of (qs-qa) is maximum of a year and the condensation in the atmosphere is nearly equal to the evaporation from the Japan Sea. The intense diabatic heating is observed in passages of an extratropical cyclone in autumn and the latent heat supply from the sea is one of the dominant processes in this situation. The increase in the sensible heat supply from the sea is not enough in autumn due to the smaller (Ts-Ta) to give rise to such an intense atmospheric heating as observed in winter.