1990 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 107-128
A 3-dimensional, anelastic cloud model is applied to the simulation of the July 19, 1981 Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) case study cloud. The model utilizes the bulk water microphysical parameterization technique where number concentrations of cloud ice and snow are taken into account in addition to the mixing ratios of six water species (water vapor, cloud water, cloud ice, rain, snow and graupel/hail). Cloud ice is initiated only by primary nucleation processes (deposition/sorption and heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets) in the present model. The timing reference was established between the simulation and observations based on a remarkable change in the rise rates of both the observed and simulated cloud tops, and the model results are compared with the observations as a function of time and space.
The general features of the cloud (such as cloud top height, cloud size, arrival time of precipitation at the cloud base, radar first echo, etc.) seem to have been well reproduced. Furthermore, the model cloud simulated quite well the location of hydrometeors with respect to the updraft/downdraft structure, the number concentration of precipitating ice particles, updraft velocity and cloud water content along the King Air's penetrating pass.
The main features which are not accurately reproduced are the cloud base height, the rise rate of the cloud top and the radar echo near the ground. The cloud base height is too low, which is attributed to the lack of representativeness in the input data taken from the closest radiosonde sounding, while the too rapid rise rate of the cloud top seems to be attributable to the way in which convection is initiated. The rapid decrease in radar reflectivity of the simulated cloud seems to be attributable to inadequate parameterization for rain and graupel.