2015 Volume 61 Issue Supplement Pages S119-S121
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential compound for several biologic functions. Pi levels outside the normal range, however, contribute to several pathological processes. Hypophosphatemia leads to bone abnormalities, such as rickets/osteomalacia. Hyperphosphatemia contributes to vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis patients and is independently associated with cardiac mortality.
Pi homeostasis is regulated by the coordinated function of renal and intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters with dietary Pi, parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and fibroblast growth factor 23. The type II NaPi transporter/SLC34 family, with three members identified to date, is mainly responsible for Pi homeostasis in the body. SLC34A1 and SCL34A3 are predominantly expressed in the kidney, whereas SLC34A2 is expressed in the small intestine. The role of each SLC34 in the body was recently established by studies of gene-targeted mice. Mutation of SLC34A1 causes Fanconi syndrome and mutation of SLC34A3 causes autosomal recessive hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria. SLC34A2 is thought to be a major intestinal NaPi transporter and mutation of SLC34A2 causes pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. A detailed understanding of Pi regulation in the body is important toward maintaining health.